Support us on Patreon! https://patreon.com/eons
Tyrannosaurus rex was big, Tyrannosaurus rex was vicious, and Tyrannosaurus rex had tiny arms. The story of how T-Rex lost its arms is, itself, pretty simple. But the story of why it kept those little limbs, and how it used them? Well, that’s a little more complicated.
Thanks as always to Nobumichi Tamura for allowing us to use his wonderful paleoart: http://spinops.blogspot.com/
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios
Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
Aldo Espinosa Zúñiga, Svetlana Pylaeva, Colin Sylvester, Philip Slingerland, John Vanek, Jose Garcia, Noah offitzer, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Wilco Verweij, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Addison Baker, Michael McClellan, Elysha Nygård, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Southpoint, Connor Jensen, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, Sapjes, Dave, Daisuke Goto, Zachary Winkler, Hubert Rady, Yuntao Zhou, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Mario Morales, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, phil parker, Ruben Winter, Ron Harvey Jr, Joshua Mitchell, Johnny Li, Katie Fichtner, Budjarn Lambeth, Jacob Gerke, Katie M Vasilescu, Brandon Burke, Alex Yan, Jordon Sokoll
Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook – https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow
Twitter – https://twitter.com/eonsshow
Instagram – https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/
Baron, Matthew G., David B. Norman, and Paul M. Barrett. “A new hypothesis of dinosaur relationships and early dinosaur evolution.” Nature 543.7646 (2017): 501.
Bates, Karl T., and Peter L. Falkingham. “Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics.” Biology Letters (2012): rsbl20120056.
Brusatte, Stephen L., and Thomas D. Carr. “The phylogeny and evolutionary history of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs.” Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 20252.
Burch, Sara. Osteological, Myological, and Phylogenetic Trends of Forelimb Reduction in Nonavian Theropod Dinosaurs. Diss. The Graduate School, Stony Brook University: Stony Brook, NY., 2015.
Carpenter, Kenneth. “Forelimb biomechanics of nonavian theropod dinosaurs in predation.” Senckenbergiana lethaea 82.1 (2002): 59-75.
Erickson, Gregory M., et al. “Bite-force estimation for Tyrannosaurus rex from tooth-marked bones.” Nature 382.6593 (1996): 706.
Fowler, Denver W., et al. “Reanalysis of “Raptorex kriegsteini”: a juvenile tyrannosaurid dinosaur from Mongolia.” PLoS One 6.6 (2011): e21376.
Gillingham, James C., and Jeffrey A. Chambers. “Courtship and pelvic spur use in the Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus.” Copeia 1982.1 (1982): 193-196.
Gould, Stephen Jay, and Richard C. Lewontin. “The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme.” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 205.1161 (1979): 581-598.
Hutchinson, John R., and Stephen M. Gatesy. “Dinosaur locomotion: beyond the bones.” Nature 440.7082 (2006): 292.
Makovicky, Peter J. “A new small theropod from the Morrison Formation of Como Bluff, Wyoming.” Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17.4 (1997): 755-757.
MIDDLETON, KEVIN M., and STEPHEN M. GATESY. “Theropod forelimb design and evolution.” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128.2 (2000): 149-187.
Personal communication, Amy Atwater & Dr. John Scanella, Museum of the Rockies
Pontzer, Herman, et al. “Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running.” Journal of Experimental Biology 212.4 (2009): 523-534.
Ruiz, Javier, et al. “The hand structure of Carnotaurus sastrei (Theropoda, Abelisauridae): implications for hand diversity and evolution in abelisaurids.” Palaeontology 54.6 (2011): 1271-1277.
Sellers, William I., et al. “Investigating the running abilities of Tyrannosaurus rex using stress-constrained multibody dynamic analysis.” PeerJ 5 (2017): e3420.
Sereno, Paul C., et al. “Tyrannosaurid skeletal design first evolved at small body size.” Science 326.5951 (2009): 418-422.
Stanley, Steven M. “Evidence that the Arms of Tyrannosaurus rex were not functionless but adapted for vicious slashing.” Geological Society of America Annual Meeting 2017.
Sullivan, Corwin, et al. “The asymmetry of the carpal joint and the evolution of wing folding in maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences (2010): rspb20092281.
Therrien, François, and Donald M. Henderson. “My theropod is bigger than yours… or not: estimating body size from skull length in theropods.” Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27.1 (2007): 108-115. [108:MTIBTY]2.0.CO;2
USAMI, Yoshiyuki, and Ryuta KINUGASA. “A Possibility of Fast Running of TYRANNOSAURUS.” DEStech Transactions on Engineering and Technology Research amma (2017).
Xu, Xing, et al. “A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China.” Nature 439.7077 (2006): 715.