Try Audible for 30 days visit https://www.audible.com/eons or text eons to 500500!
Sea scorpions thrived for 200 million years, coming in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Over time, they developed a number of adaptations–from crushing claws to flattened tails for swimming. And some of them adapted by getting so big that they still hold the record as the largest arthropods of all time.
Thank you to these paleoartists for allowing us to use their wonderful illustrations:
Franz Anthony: https://252mya.com/gallery/franz-anthony
Ceri Thomas: http://alphynix.tumblr.com/
Lucas Lima: https://252mya.com/gallery/lucas-lima
Julio Lacerda: https://252mya.com/gallery/julio-lacerda
Nobu Tamura: https://spinops.blogspot.com/
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios
Super special thanks to the following Patreon patrons for helping make Eons possible:
Katie Fichtner, Anthony Callaghan, Robert Amling, Po Foon Kwong, Larry Wilson, Merri Snaidman, Renzo Caimi Ordenes, John Vanek, Neil H. Gray, Marilyn Wolmart, Esmeralda Rupp-Spangle, Gregory Donovan, Ehit Dinesh Agarwal, الخليفي سلطان, Gabriel Cortez, Marcus Lejon, Robert Arévalo, Robert Hill, Kelby Reid, Todd Dittman, Betsy Radley, PS, Philip Slingerland, Jose Garcia, Eric Vonk, Tony Wamsley, Henrik Peteri, Jonathan Wright, Jon Monteiro, James Bording, Brad Nicholls, Miles Chaston, Michael McClellan, Jeff Graham, Maria Humphrey, Nathan Paskett, Connor Jensen, Daisuke Goto, Hubert Rady, Gregory Kintz, Tyson Cleary, Chandler Bass, Maly Lor, Joao Ascensao, Tsee Lee, Sarah Fritts, Ron Harvey Jr, Jacob Gerke, Alex Yan
If you’d like to support the channel, head over to http://patreon.com/eons and pledge for some cool rewards!
Want to follow Eons elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook – https://www.facebook.com/eonsshow
Twitter – https://twitter.com/eonsshow
Instagram – https://www.instagram.com/eonsshow/
Braddy, Simon J., Richard J. Aldridge, Sarah E. Gabbott, and Johannes N. Theron. “Lamellate book-gills in a late Ordovician eurypterid from the Soom Shale, South Africa: support for a eurypterid-scorpion clade.” Lethaia 32, no. 1 (1999): 72-74.
Braddy, Simon J., Markus Poschmann, and O. Erik Tetlie. “Giant claw reveals the largest ever arthropod.” Biology Letters 4, no. 1 (2007): 106-109. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsbl.2007.0491
Brezinski, David K., and Albert D. Kollar. “Reevaluation of the Age and Provenance of the Giant Palmichnium kosinskiorum Eurypterid Trackway, from Elk County, Pennsylvania.” Annals of Carnegie Museum 84, no. 1 (2016): 39-45.
Briggs, Derek EG, and WD Ian Rolfe. “A giant arthropod trackway from the Lower Mississippian of Pennsylvania.” Journal of Paleontology (1983): 377-390. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1304661.pdf?seq=1
Elliott, David K., and Michael A. Petriello. “New poraspids (Agnatha, Heterostraci) from the Early Devonian of the western United States.” Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31, no. 3 (2011): 518-530.
Lamsdell, James C., and Simon J. Braddy. “Cope’s Rule and Romer’s theory: patterns of diversity and gigantism in eurypterids and Palaeozoic vertebrates.” Biology Letters (2009): doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0700
Lamsdell, James C., Simon J. Braddy, and O. Erik Tetlie. “Redescription of Drepanopterus abonensis (Chelicerata: Eurypterida: Stylonurina) from the Late Devonian of Portishead, UK.” Palaeontology 52, no. 5 (2009): 1113-1139.
Legg, David A. “Sanctacaris uncata: the oldest chelicerate (Arthropoda). “Naturwissenschaften 101, no. 12 (2014): 1065-1073.
Manning, P. L. and Dunlop, J. A. “The respiratory organs of eurypterids.” Palaeontology, 38, no. 2 (1995): 287–297.
McCoy, Victoria E., James C. Lamsdell, Markus Poschmann, Ross P. Anderson, and Derek EG Briggs. “All the better to see you with: eyes and claws reveal the evolution of divergent ecological roles in giant pterygotid eurypterids.” Biology letters 11, no. 8 (2015): 20150564.
Poschmann, Markus, Brigitte Schoenemann, and Victoria E. McCoy. “Telltale eyes: the lateral visual systems of Rhenish Lower Devonian eurypterids (Arthropoda, Chelicerata) and their palaeobiological implications.” Palaeontology 59, no. 2 (2016): 295-304.
Selden, P. A., and John David Lawson. “Eurypterid respiration.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 309, no. 1138 (1985): https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/pdf/10.1098/rstb.1985.0081
Tetlie, O. Erik. “Distribution and dispersal history of Eurypterida (Chelicerata).” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 252, no. 3-4 (2007): 557-574. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6434/bc6cdbfd7613c5dc725333a5b003975c6c50.pdf
Vrazo, Matthew B., and Simon J. Braddy. “Testing the ‘mass-moult-mate’hypothesis of eurypterid palaeoecology.” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 311, no. 1-2 (2011): 63-73.
Whyte, Martin A. “Palaeoecology: a gigantic fossil arthropod trackway.” Nature 438, no. 7068 (2005): 576.